USB stands for Universal Serial Bus. It is the worldwide standard that defines specifications and protocols for connectors, cables and how they communicate with other devices. Everyone has used some form of USB port. The port on your laptop to which you can connect an external keyboard, mouse, or flash drive, for example, is a USB Type-A port. Then there are other types, such as micro USB and USB Type-C. While older Android phones use micro USB, most modern smartphones have a USC-C connector. The main difference between these ports is the charging standards they follow.
In general, Android smartphones support one of two charging standards: USB PD and OEM-specific or proprietary. The Universal Serial Bus Power Delivery (USB PD) standard has been around for about 10 years and works with USB-C ports. It supports up to 240W of power, making it ideal for various devices such as laptops, tablets, power banks and more (via USB.org). Furthermore, the high power delivery capacity allows manufacturers to configure according to their needs with sufficient headroom.
On the other hand, several companies like Oppo and OnePlus have developed their own charging standards that use the Type-C port. While these standards support fast charging, they are device specific. For example, the Samsung Galaxy S22 Ultra comes with Super Fast Charging, a standard that complies with USB standards.